SWOT Analysis of Historical Research in Music Education in Australia

Prepared by Robin Stevens – November 2017


INTRODUCTION

  • Undertaking historical research is important for many reasons, but there are two aspects that are particularly relevant to music education. Firstly, the educational historian Richard Aldrich has pointed out that it is only through an understanding of past mistakes that we can avoid errors in the future and that data can be obtained which will inform decisions to be taken regarding future action.[1] Moreover, Allen P. Britton has asserted that ‘Historical studies can serve to orient[ate] the music teacher in time and space, bringing him/her back to a real world in which the problems of today are related to the problems of the past’.[2] Secondly, music education historians George Heller and Bruce Wilson have pointed out that biography can be a source of inspiration and motivation for contemporary music educators: ‘biography serves not only to provide worthy models, but also to cast notables of the past in accurate, life-like (and therefore replicable) human models of behaviour’.[3]
  • The history of Australian education was one of first areas to receive attention by university researchers and postgraduate students. During the 1960s and 1970s, there were several prominent researchers whose primary focus was on historical research; these included A. G. Austin, Stephen Murray-Smith, E. L. French and R. J. W. Selleck at The University of Melbourne and Donald Peart, Alan Barcan, J. S. Gregory, Cliff Turney and R. C. Petersen at The University of Sydney. In addition, at least one state education authority – the Education Department of Victoria – appointed an Education History Officer (W. N. Drummond) who, with L. J. Blake as General Editor, produced a three-volume history entitled Vision and Realisation: A Centenary History of State Education in Victoria in 1973.
  • This first generation of Australian education historians encouraged some of the earliest research studies in music education which resulted in historical theses being undertaken by Alexandra Cameron (BEd 1956, MEd 1969), Doreen Bridges (PhD 1970) and Robin Stevens (PhD 1978). Some of these music education historians went on to supervise higher degree by research students undertaking their own investigations into the history of music education in Australia.

STRENGTHS

  • The development of school music education from its beginnings during the mid-nineteenth century through to the mid-twentieth century has been reasonably comprehensive in the cases of New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia and to a lesser extent Tasmania (see the listing of theses and research papers in the Appendix). In addition, the history of tertiary music education, particularly the development of the Australian Music Examinations Board, was well documented (Bridges 1970). Historical studies of music education in these four states and in some cases undertaken by successive music education historians to extend the chronological period of single studies be regarded as a strength in this field of research. There is a wealth of knowledge and experience of both success and failure in music education policy and practice documented in these historical studies which is available for present-day policy makers to draw upon in their formulation of future action.
  • The life histories / biographies of several important Australian music educators, both in this country and overseas, have been well documented in the colonies, later states, mentioned above as has the development of various music teaching methods such as Tonic Sol-fa, Dalcroze, Orff Schulwerk and Creative Music. Inspiration derived from a particular music teacher has been the motivation for many music students to embark on their own careers in music education. Prominent music teachers from the past—such as the nineteenth century Tonic Sol-fa-ist Samuel McBurney in my own case (see Stevens 1986) and prominent women music educators (see Jenkins 2007, Stevens 2000, 2017)—represent sources of inspiration for both past and present generations of music educators.
  • Supervision for postgraduate students undertaking historical research topics has been available chiefly at Deakin University, Monash University and RMIT University by supervisors who have been and are still active researchers in the area. This has resulted in both maintaining a degree of continuity for historical research and an extension of the chronological period under investigation (e.g. Ferris 1993, 2002 and Chaseling 2009).
  • As already mentioned, the history in music education was one of the most prominent areas of research during the 1960s and 1970s. However, by 1997, from a total of 267 research studies undertaken for higher degrees in music education, only 16 studies to that date were identified as focusing on history or biography. By 2012, of the 914 postgraduate research studies in music education, those focusing on history and/or biography numbered thirty-four. This appears due largely to an increased focus initially on quantitative research in music education and more recently on qualitative (descriptive) research relating to contemporary music education policy and practice.
  • Nevertheless, there is a significant body of research that has been undertaken by Australian music education historians, much of which has been published as book chapters and in both local and overseas scholarly journals. In addition, conference papers (usually published in conference proceedings) have contributed significantly to the dissemination of historical research findings. In this regard, annual conferences of the Australian Association for Research in Music Education (later the Australian and New Zealand Association …) and the Australian Society for Music Education have been avenues for both disseminating and promoting historical research in music education.

WEAKNESSES

  • One of the most obvious weaknesses in Australian music education has been the failure of policy makers—politicians and state education authorities—to take account of ‘the mistakes of the past’ in bringing forward transformative changes to areas such as the provision for music teaching in government schools and the training of primary school teachers in music. For example, the National Review of School Music Education highlighted several long-standing deficiencies in these areas through its recommendations inter alia that all primary school students should have access to music specialist teachers (R.14) and that the standard and provision of pre-service training in music for all generalist classroom teachers should be improved (R.3).[4] Despite the fact that these and other current systemic deficiencies were clearly apparent during the nineteenth century in New South Wales and Victorian colonial school systems,[5] little if any heed has been taken of these problems. This has resulted in a record of neglect in relation to these issues that has repeated itself several times over to the present day. There are clearly on-going problems in current policy making processes, namely a failure to take account of the mistakes of the past and a failure to draw on some of remedial measures which have been implemented in the past.
  • Despite a reasonably substantive corpus of research into and publications relating to the history of music education in Australia—44 theses and research papers and 147 book chapters, journal articles and published conference papers (see the Appendix), historical investigations undertaken for higher degrees up to and including 2012 represented only 3.7% of the total of completed theses and research papers undertaken in music education for higher degrees up to and including 2012. The current lack of interest and activity in historical research in music education in Australia is a matter of some concern.
  • Due perhaps to the lack of supervisors with expertise in and enthusiasm for historical research, there has been comparatively little investigation into the development of music education in schools, tertiary institutions and community settings in Queensland, Northern Territory and Western Australia. As far as can be ascertained, there are currently only a handful of historical studies into the historical development of music education being currently undertaken in Australia universities.

OPPORTUNITIES

  • As mentioned above, those responsible for music education policy particularly in government schools—i.e. federal and state politicians and their advisors, state education authorities, school administrators and music education practitioners—have a duty to ensure that they are fully informed in their decision making by drawing on the corpus of historical data that is available on Australian music education. As Richard Aldrich has pointed out, only by understanding the nature and circumstances of our past mistakes can we avoid repeating these same mistakes in the future—informed decision making must take account of past policies and practices.
  • Aside from the obvious gaps in the documentation of the history of Australian music education—in particular, Queensland, Northern Territory and Western Australia, there are many areas where there are opportunities for historical research, not least for documenting of developments in these states. Areas such as the development of school music curricula and school music organisation, tertiary music education (including the demise of several university music departments over the past couple of decades and the rise of vocational music courses in the TAFE sector and by private providers), government policy related to the provision of music education in schools—both classroom and instrumental music, public music examination bodies, music teacher professional associations, advocacy for music education, etc are all worthy of investigation.
  • There are also many opportunities for documenting the more recent past through oral history accounts as well as from documentary evidence; indeed, priority should be given to interviewing key figures involved in the development of government policies in relation to music education and to music educators who have made a significant contribution to music education practice.
  • Another opportunity for music education historians is that of inter-disciplinary research. Few if any research topics may be undertaken without a consideration of that topic’s contextual (historical) background. Accordingly, music education historians should endeavour to establish links with and contribute an historical perspective to other disciplines within the cognate area of music education.
  • Given that the majority of music education historians in Australia are either already retired from academia or will be retired within a decade, there is the opportunity for beginning and mid-career university-based researchers to develop an interest in and research skills in historical investigation. This will ensure that coming generations of music educators interested in historical investigation will have access to and may derive inspiration from experienced and well-informed supervisors.

THREATS

  • Aside from the lack of younger researchers undertaking historical research (alluded to above), there is also a potential threat to the future promotion of historical research in Australian music education with the lack of a specific focus in postgraduate coursework (specifically at Masters level) on the historical development of music education in Australia. Although by no means universal in the United States, several universities there have subjects at Masters level which teach the history of music education, thereby providing a grounding for students wishing to undertake historical research. Historical investigation in the United States is further supported by a journal dedicated to reporting historical studies—the Journal of Historical Research in Music Education—which has been utilised by several Australian music education historians.

APPENDIX

A Bibliography of Historical Research in Music Education in Australia

The following bibliography comprises all known sources of information relating to the foundation and subsequent development of music education in Australia and the life and work of Australian and overseas music educators who have been prominent in Australian music education. The referencing style utilised for these citations – the American Psychological Association (APA) style – is that adopted by the Australian Journal of Music Education and other key music education journals.

Please advise of any corrections or updates to: robinstevens@music-ed.net

Robin S. Stevens[6] November 2017


Theses & Research Papers[7]

Boadle, B. H. (1977), Music Teaching in Victorian State Primary Schools in Relation to Teacher Training (Unpublished MEd thesis). University of Melbourne.


Breen Clarke, S. (2009). ‘Flamboyance, tweed and a dash of Scotch whisky’: Franklin Sievright Peterson as adjudicator at the South Street Competitions, 1901 (Unpublished MMusSts Professional Research Project Report). University of Melbourne.


Bridges, D. M. (1970). The Role of Universities in the Development of Music Education in Australia, 1885-1970 (Unpublished PhD thesis). University of Sydney.


Burke, H. (2010), The Introduction of Creative Music Education in Victorian State Secondary Schools 1957 to 1988 (Unpublished PhD thesis). Monash University, Clayton, Victoria.


Cameron, A. E. (1956). The Class Teaching of Music in State-Supported Schools in Victoria, 1853-1905 (Unpublished BEd thesis). University of Melbourne.


Cameron, A. E. (1969). The Class Teaching of Music in Secondary Schools Victoria 1905-1955 (Unpublished MEd thesis). University of Melbourne.


Ciantar, M. S. (2011). Arthur Stedman Loam (1892-1976), Australian Composer: His contribution to musical culture and music teaching (Unpublished MMusSts Professional Research Project Report). University of Melbourne.


Chaseling, M. J. (2009). Teaching music in New South Wales primary schools,1920-1956 (Unpublished PhD thesis). Deakin University, Geelong.


Choe, M. (2016), Pedagogy and performance of David Popper (1843-1913): An analysis of influence and legacy of Popper’s compositions in studio teaching (Unpublished DMA thesis). University of Sydney.


Comte, M. (1983). Arts Education in the State School System in Victoria, Australia: 1945 to 1980 (Unpublished PhD dissertation). University of Michigan.


Davis, B. P. (1987). Class Singing in South Australian Elementary Schools in the Nineteenth Century, 1852-1892 (Unpublished MEdSt research project). Flinders University of South Australia.


Davis, B.P. (1987)). The History of the Music Curriculum in the Nineteenth Century South Australian public education system, 1836-1910 (Unpublished MEd thesis). Flinders University of South Australia.


De Quadros, A. (1988). Development in music education with exemplication of Victorian curriculum documents, 1981-1987: Description, discussion and cultural evaluation (Unpublished MEd thesis). LaTrobe University, Melbourne.


Dugdale, J. H. (1969). The Place of Music in the National and Public Schools of New South Wales, 1848-1880 (Unpublished MEd Long Essay). University of Sydney.


Elton, J. (1967). Music in Secondary Education in Girls' Schools in Victoria (Unpublished MMus thesis). University of Melbourne.


Farrant, J. (1992). The History of Music in Coolgardie, Kalgoorlie and Boulder, 1892 to 1908. (Unpublished MA). University of Western Australia.


Ferris, A. J. (1993). The Provision of Classroom Music in State Primary Schools, Victoria: 1970 to 1980 (Unpublished MEdSt minor thesis). Monash University, Clayton, Victoria.


Ferris, A. J. (2002). Classroom Music in Victorian State Primary Schools 1934 to 1981: Curriculum Support (Unpublished PhD thesis). Monash University, Melbourne.


Harris, M. C. (1985). The Role of Women in Music Education in Victoria from 1875 to 1910 (Unpublished MEdSt thesis). Monash University, Melbourne.


James, S. C. (1999). Joseph O’Malley S.J. A Nineteenth Century Australian Music Educator (Unpublished MEd Research Paper). Deakin University, Geelong.


Jenkins, L. E. (2007). Australian women music teachers, performers and composers from 1900 to 1950 (Unpublished PhD thesis). Monash University, Melbourne.


Kidney, J. (1976). Music Education in South Australia 1871-1897 (Unpublished Student Paper). Murray Park College of Advanced Education, South Australia.


Lauer, H. R. (1996). The Role of the First Four Elder Professors in the Development of Musical Studies in the University of Adelaide, 1885-1964 (Unpublished MEdSt dissertation). University of Adelaide.


Lierse, S. M. (2005). The Development of Instrumental Music Programs in Victorian Government Secondary Schools 1965 to 2000 (Unpublished PhD thesis). RMIT University, Melbourne.


Maclellan, B. M. (1990). Walter Bonwick and the Establishment of Music Teaching in the National Schools of Victoria, 1855-1856 (Unpublished MEd thesis). University of Melbourne.


Maclellan, B. M. (1995). Walter Bonwick and the Place of Music in the Curriculum of the National, Common and State Schools, 1854-1883 (Unpublished PhD thesis). University of Melbourne.


Murphy, B. J. (1995). Some Aspects of Music Education in Victoria, 1850-1988 (Unpublished PhD thesis). Monash University, Clayton, Victoria.


Nash, S. (2011). Heather Gell: A Dalcroze influence in Australian music education 1924-1979 (Unpublished PhD thesis). University of Sydney.


O' Young, J. (1986). Music Education in South Australian Primary Schools 1950 – 1985 (Unpublished Student Paper). South Australian College of Advanced Education, Adelaide, South Australia.


Pietsch, H. M. (2010). The choral program of the South Australian public primary schools' Festival of Music: A study of its effectiveness (Unpublished PhD thesis). University of Adelaide, South Australia.


Pope, J. L. (1994). ABC School Broadcasts in Western Australia, 1938-1946: An Investigation into Radio Programmes for Early Childhood featuring Music and Movement (Unpublished MEd project thesis). Edith Cowan University, Perth, Western Australia.


Pope. J. L. (2008). Dalcroze Eurhythmics in Australasia: The first generation, from 1918 (Unpublished PhD thesis). Monash University, Clayton, Victoria.


Read, J. C. (1992), A Holistic Approach to Music Education in the Primary School: An Historical and Theoretical Perspective (Unpublished MEd research paper). Deakin University, Geelong.


Rushton, J. M. (1965), The contribution of radio and television to the teaching of Music in the New South Wales state primary schools (Unpublished MEd thesis). University of Sydney.


Russell, I. (n. d.), The History of the Music Branch, Education Department of South Australia (Unpublished Student Paper). South Australian College of Advanced Education, Adelaide, South Australia.


Sardi, J. (2007). An investigation of musical life and music societies in Perth (Western Australia), 1900-1950 (Unpublished B.A.(Hons) thesis). Edith Cowan University, Perth, Western Australia.


Somssich, B. J. Z. (1975). Music Education in Tasmanian State Primary Schools, 1905-1975: An Enquiry into Trends, Developments and Attitudes (Unpublished BA(Hons) thesis). University of Tasmania.


Southcott, J. E. (1997). Music in State-Supported Schooling in South Australia to 1920 (Unpublished PhD thesis). Deakin University, Geelong.


Stevens, R. S. (1971). Samuel McBurney and the Introduction of the Tonic Sol-fa Method of Teaching Singing to Victorian State Schools (Unpublished BEd Research Essay). University of Melbourne.


Stevens, R. S. (1978). Music in State-Supported Education in New South Wales and Victoria, 1848-1920 (Unpublished PhD thesis). University of Melbourne.


Stowasser, H. M. (1983), The Development of the Music Curriculum in Queensland Secondary Schools (Unpublished PhD thesis). University of Queensland.


Turner, K. (1981). The Relation Between the public Music Society of South Australia and Musical Education (Unpublished Student Paper). Hartley College of Advanced Education, Adelaide, South Australia.


Webster, G. (1993). Orff Schulwerk - An Historical Perspective for Australian Society (Unpublished MA (Music Education) dissertation). St Thomas University, St Paul, Minnesota.


Wilmott, N. (1986). A History of the Music Department, University of Queensland, 1912-1970 (Unpublished MA(Qualifying) thesis). University of Queensland.


Published Materials: Books, Book Chapters, Journal Articles & Published Conference Papers[8]

Bridges, D. M. (1972). Some Historical Background to Australian Music Education (1): Foundations. Australian Journal of Music Education, 10 (April), 21-24.


Bridges, D. M. (1972). Some Historical Background to Australian Music Education (2): Origins of the Music Examination System. Australian Journal of Music Education, 11 (October), 13-16.


Bridges, D. M. (1973). Some Historical Background to Australian Music Education (3): Music in the University of Melbourne (1901-1925). Australian Journal of Music Education, 12 (April), 17-19.


Bridges, D. M. (1973). Some Historical Background to Australian Music Education (4:) The Development and Influence of Music Education. Australian Journal of Music Education, 13 (October), 21-23.


Bridges, D. M. (1974). Some Historical Background to Australian Music Education (5) The Rise of the Australian Music Examinations Board. Australian Journal of Music Education, 14 (April), 9-11.


Bridges, D. M. (1974). Music in Australian Education: Origins and Background. Australian Journal of Music Education, 15 (July), 11-13.


Bridges, D. M. (1975). Music in the University of Adelaide: A Retrospective View. Miscellanea Musicologica: Adelaide Studies in Musicology, 8, 1-10.


Bridges, D. M. (1978). Towards a Rationale for Music Education: An overview. In Proceedings of the National Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Music Education, 1978 (pp. 4-9). AARME.


Bridges, D. M. (2005). Teaching and Learning Music: The Thoughts of E. Harold Davies (1867-1947). In Proceedings of the National Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Music Education (pp. 37-45). AARME.


Bridges, D. M. (2006). More than a Musician: A life of E. Harold Davies. Melbourne: Australian Scholarly Publishing.


Burke, H. (2005). The Relevance of Creativity: John Paynter and Victorian Music Education in the Twenty First Century. In Proceedings of the National Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Music Education (pp. 46-52). AARME.


Burke, H. (2005). Conflicts and misconceptions in the development of creative music education in Victorian state secondary schools. In David Forrest Ed.), Australian Society for Music Education Inc. XV National Conference Proceedings (pp. 35-40). Parkville Victoria: Australia Australian Society for Music Education.


Burke, H. (2006). The new soundscape: the introduction of integrated arts in Victorian state secondary schools. In Proceedings of the National Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Music Education (pp.1-7). AARME.


Burke, H. (2007). A systems view of creativity and its implication for classroom music education. In Peter de Vries and Jane Southcott (Eds), Proceedings of the XXIXth Annual Conference Music Education Research: Values and Initiatives (pp.1-7) Melbourne: AARME.


Burke, H. (2007). The misapplications of Gardner's Music Intelligence in Victorian state schools. In A. Stanberg, J. McIntosh and R. Faulkner (Eds), Celebrating Musical Communities. Proceedings of the 40th Anniversary National Conference (pp.73-76). Nedlands Western Australia: Australian Society for Music Education.


Burke, H. (2010). The 1960s Victorian secondary curriculum reforms and the introduction of the teacher-developed music curriculum. E-Journal of Studies in Music Education, 1-15.


Burke, H. (2014). Marching backwards into the future: The introduction of the English creative music movement in state secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. British Journal of Music Education, 31(1), 41-54.


Burke, H. (2014). Influential Pioneers of Creative Music Education in Victoria, Australia. Australian Journal of Music Education, 2014(2), 23-35.


Burke, H. (2014). Noela Hogg, music educator: reminiscences of a past student. Australian Journal of Music Education, 2014(2), 36-45.


Callighan, J. (1998/9). The Italian Vocal Tradition for the New Millenium: Isaac Natham's Singing Pedagogy and Current Voice Science'. In J. Williamson (Ed.), Proceedings of the XXth Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Music Education. Perth, Western Australia: AARME.


Chaseling, M. J. (2003). The great public school choir of ten thousand. In K. Hartwig (Ed.), Proceedings of Artistic Practice as Research: XXVth National Conference AARME (pp. 25-43). Melbourne, Victoria: AARME.


Chaseling, M. J. (2004). Why Celebrate in 2004? The Centennial of the New South Wales Primary Syllabus. In Proceedings of the National Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Music Education, 2004 (pp. 58-74) AARME.


Chaseling, M. J. (2004). Snapshots from the Inspectorate: Music in New South Wales State Primary Schools: 1908, 1914, 1918. In M. J. Chaseling (Ed.), Proceedings of the XXVIth National Conference of AARME (pp. 75-94). Melbourne, Victoria: AARME.


Chaseling, M. J. (2004). Snapshots from the Inspectorate: Music in New South Wales State Primary Schools: 1908, 1914, 1918. In M. J. Chaseling (Ed.), Proceedings of the XXVIth National Conference AARME (pp. 75-94). AARME.


Chaseling, M. J. (2006). Teaching with technology: the wonders of wireless. In P. de Vries & J. Southcott (Eds), Proceedings of Music education, standards and practices: XXVIIIth Annual Conference Australian Association for Research in Music Education (pp. 8-18). Mebourne, Victoria: AARME.


Chaseling, M. J. (2007). Theodore Stephen Tearne: New South Wales Second Superintendent of Music. In P. De Vries & J. Southcott (Eds), Proceedings of Music Education Research: Values and Initiatives (pp. 9-19). Melbourne, Victoria: AARME.


Chaseling, M. J. (2008). Through the eyes of Victor McMahon: The school flute band movement in NSW public schools. In J. Southcott (Ed.), Proceedings of the XXXth Annual Conference: Innovation and tradition: Music Education Research (pp. 45-59). Melbourne, Victoria: AARME.


Chaseling, M. J. (2010)). Lost and found: 10,000 voices: an inspiring 1901 choral spectacular. Music in Action, 8(3), 8-13.


Chaseling, M. J. & Boyd, W. E. (2014). [The decline and revival of music education in New South Wales schools, 1920-1956. Australian Journal of Music Education.]


Chaseling, M. J. & Smith, R. J. (2014). [Austral voices: recommended music resources in the school syllabus and The School Magazine, 1916 to 1956. Australian Folklore.]


Colgrave, D. (1990). A Historical Role for Music Education: the role of school and church in maintaining the musical life of Darwin, 1873-1980. In Proceedings of the Australian Society for Music Education VII National Conference (pp. 30-33). Alice Springs, Northern Territory: ASME.


Collins, D. (2001). Sounds from the Stables: The Story of Sydney's Conservatorium. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 2001.


Crawford, R. (2009). An Australian Perspective: Technology in Secondary School Music. Historical Research in Music Education, 30(2), 147-167.


Crews. R. & Spithill, J. (2012). One hundred years: Music Teachers' Association of NSW 1912 to 2012. Wollongong, NSW: Music Teachers' Association of NSW.


Eckermann, A. H. D. & Eckermann, G. R. (1991). A Century of Children and Music 1891-1991: A History of the South Australian Public (Primary) Schools Music Society. Adelaide: South Australian Public (Primary) Schools Music Society.


Erlich, R. (1990). The School Recorder: Stepping-stone or millstone? In Proceedings of the National Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Music Education, 1990 (pp. 64-74). AARME.


Farrant, J. (1990)). Music Education in Kalgoorlie/Boulder, 1893-1910: A reflection of a late Victorian bourgeois society. In Proceedings of the Australian Society for Music Education VII National Conference, 1990 (pp. 33-36). ASME.


Ferris, J. A. (1993). Music on the Edge: A Historical Study of the Vunerability of Music in the Primary School Curriculum. In Proceedings of the IXth Australian Society for Music Education National Conference, 1993 (pp. 91-96). ASME.


Ferris, J. A. (1993). A Profile of Liz Grant: A Primary School Teacher. Victorian Journal of Music Education, 1993(2), 9.


Ferris, J. A. (1994). Miss Doris Irwin: A Tribute. Victorian Journal of Music Education, 1994(3), p.15.


Ferris, J. A. (1995). ‘The Concert Halls Were Crowded’: A Study of Melbourne's Wartime Interest in Fine Music and Some Implications for School Music. In Proceedings of the Xth Australian Society for Music Education National Conference, 1993 (pp.93-). ASME.


Ferris, J. A. (2000). Emblems Sweet of Our Dear Austral Land: The role of the school paper song collection in the education of Victorian state primary school children, 1943-1968. In Proceedings of the XXIInd Annual Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Music Education, 2000 (pp. 54-59). AARME.


Ferris, J. A. (2002). Song and Cultural Hierarchy: An investigation of the song material available to Victorian primary school classrooms to support the 1934 curriculum. In Proceedings of the National Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Music Education, 2002 (pp. 50-58). AARME


Ferris, J.A. (2003), Away we go, after I count three. One…two…three…': Early attempts to find an appropriate pedagogy for the teaching of singing using the wireless as new technology, 1940 to 1960. In Proceedings of the Xth Australian Society for Music Education National Conference, 1993 (pp. 55-). Darwin, Northern Territory: ASME.


Ferris, J. A. (2003). Curriculum and Cultural Hegemony: An historical study of the role of the Australian Broadcasting Commission's school concerts in the promotion of high art music to support classroom music curriculum in Victorian primary schools, 1934 to 1980. In Proceedings of the National Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Music Education, 2003 (pp. 78-86). AARME.


Fox, M. (1988). Music Education in South Australia 1836-1984. In A. D. McCredie (Ed.) From Colonel Light into the Footlights; The Performing Arts in South Australia from 1836 to the Present. Norwood, South Australia: Pagel Books.


Groulx, T. J. (2013). Three Nations, One Common Root: A Historical Comparison of Elementary Music Education in the United Kingdom, the United States, and Australia. Journal of Historical Research in Music Education, 34(2), 137-153.


Jarrott, J. K. (1982). William Jarrott: a pioneer in music education. Quest, 34 (November), 41-44.


Jenkins, L. E. (2002). Ruby Davy - an atypical music teacher. In Research matters: Linking outcomes with practice. In J. Rosevear, J. & J. Callaghan, J. (Eds.), Australian Association for Research in Music Education: Proceedings of the XXIVth Annual Conference (pp. 78-85). Melbourne, Victoria: AARME.


Jenkins, L. E. (2006). The odd bod, the icon and the modest woman: The differences and similarities amongst three Australian women music teachers, performers and composers. In P. de Vries & J. Southcott (Eds.), Proceedings of the XXVIIIth Annual Conference Music Education: Standards and Practices Pp. 57-65). Melbourne Victoria: AARME.


Jenkins, L. E. (2011). Ruth Flockart and Dr Wood: A crucial relationship in the development of Melbourne Methodist Ladies' College music program, Australian Journal of Music Education, 2011(1), 3-10.


Jenkins, L. E. (2014). The Significance of Familial Home Support for Australian Female Musicians and Music Educators from 1890 to 1950: Three Case Studies, Journal of Historical Research in Music Education, XXXVI(1), 34-64.


Jones, A. W. (1991). Great Australian Educators: Alexander Clark, Unicorn, 17(3), 185-186.


Joseph, D. & Southcott, J. E. (2007). Retaining a frisson of the 'other': imperialism, assimilation, integration and multiculturalism in Australian schools, Music Education Research, 9(1), 35- 48.


Joseph, D. & Southcott, J. E. (2012). Retaining a frisson of the 'other': Imperialism, assimilation, integration and multiculturalism in Australia. In K. Swanwick (Ed.), Music education: Major themes in education (pp. 250-264). Abingdon Oxford: Routledge.


Le Moignan, M. (2011). Thanks - for the music - and the memories. Sydney, NSW: Sydney Conservatorium of Music Foundation.


Levey, M. T. (2010). Mary MacKillop: More than one hundred years of music teaching. Burwood, NSW: Trustees of the Sisters of St Joseph.


Lierse, S. (2006). Instrumental music programs in Victorian government secondary schools, Victorian Journal of Music Education, 2004/2006, 62-69.


Lierse, S. (2016). Fifty years of instrumental music programs in Australian government secondary schools: What do these state and territorial ‘islands’ have in common in order to have them more connected? In Proceedings of the Australian and New Zealand Association for Research in Music Education Conference, 2016.


McCallum, P. (2015). The Centenary of the Con: A History of the Sydney Conservatorium of Music 195-2015. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 2015.


Nash, S. J. (2004). Heather Gell: A Dalcroze Influence in NSW Music Education from 1939 to 1981. In Proceedings of the National Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Music Education, 2004 (pp. 242-257). AARME.


Nash, S. J. (2005). Spinning a Vision: Heather Gell’s Life and Work in the War Years 1939–1945. In Proceedings of the National Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Music Education, 2005 (pp. 106-116). AARME.


Pope, J. (2005). High hopes and hindsight: promoting Dalcroze Eurhythmics in Australia, 1923-24. In D. Forrest (Ed.), A Celebration of Voices: Proceedings of the XV National ASME Conference (pp. 197-203). Parkville, Victoria: Australian Society for Music Education, 2005: 197-203.


Pope, J L (2005). Wretched victims in singlets: A Jaques-Dalcroze music examination. In P. de Vries (Ed.), Proceedings of the XXVIIth Annual AARME Conference (pp.117-125). Melbourne Victoria: AARME.


Pope, J. (2006). Dalcroze Eurhythmics in Melbourne: 1919-1929. Proceedings of the National Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Music Education, 2006 (pp. 85-94). Melbourne Victoria: AARME.


Pope, J. L. (2006). Mary Whidborne. First teacher of Dalcroze eurhythmics in New South Wales? Brolga: an Australian journal about dance, 24(June 2006), 7-18.


Pope, J. & Nash, S. (2009), Establishing Dalcroze teacher education in Australia: A task for Sisyphus? In M. Comte (Ed.), Musical Dimensions: A Festschrift for Doreen Bridges (pp. 37-56). Melbourne: ASME.


Rosevear, J. (2012). Musical Fusions. In N. Harvey, J. Fornasiero, G. McCarthy, C. Macintyre & C. Crossin (Eds), A History of the Faculty of Arts at the University of Adelaide 1876-2012 (pp. 325-350). Adelaide: University of Adelaide Press, 2012.


Southcott, J. E. (1990. An Early Paradigm of Participant Learning in Music Education: The Percussion Band', in Proceedings of the Association Music Education Lecturers 12th Annual Conference, Association Music Education Lecturers (pp.17-31). AMEL.


Southcott, J. E. (1990. An Early Model of Participant Learning in Music: The percussion band. In Proceedings of the National Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Music Education, 1990 (pp. 17-31). AARME.


Southcott, J. E. (1991). Coloured Birds and Balls. In Proceedings of the Association of Music Education Lecturers 13th Annual Conference (pp.171-206). Hobart, Tasmania: AMEL.


Southcott, J. E. (1991). Music as a Vehicle of Reform in 19th Century Educational Movements. In Proceedings of the National Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Music Education, 1993 (pp. 89-98). AARME.


Southcott, J. E. (1992). Marital Strains. In V.C. Weidenbach, J. (Ed.), Proceedings of the XIVth Conference, Association of Music Education Lecturers (pp. 269-286). Sydney, NSW: AMEL.


Southcott, J. E. (1992). The Percussion Band - Mere Noise or Music?, British Journal of Music Education, 9(2), 111-122.


Southcott, J. E. (1993). Music as a Vehicle of Reform in 19th Century Educational Movements. In Proceedings of the Association of Music Education Lecturers 15th Annual Conference (pp.89-98). AMEL.


Southcott, J. E. (1993). The Classroom Percussion Band-Osaurus. In Proceedings of the Australian Society for Music Education IX National Conference (pp.202-210). Melbourne: ASME.


Southcott, J. E. (1993). Tonic Sol-fa, Temperance, Sunday Schools and Empire. In Proceedings of the Australian and New Zealand History of Education Society and Canadian History of Education Society Association Canadienne D'Histoire de L'Education Combined Conference.


Southcott, J. E. (1994). Alexander Clarke: South Australian Music Educator and Advocate. In Proceedings of the Association Music Education Lecturers 16th Annual Conference (pp.110-123). AMEL.


Southcott, J. E. (1994). An American and Australian Coincidence - Tonic Sol-fa, Froebel and the Colors of the Rainbow, Bulletin of Historical Research in Music Education, 15(2), 79-100.


Southcott, J. E. (1995). How to Implement Curriculum Change in Classroom Music: A Nineteenth Century Precedent. In Proceedings of the Australian Society for Music Education Xth Annual Conference (pp.250-256). ASME.


Southcott, J. E. (1995). The Establishment of the music curriculum in South Australia: The role of Alexander Clark, Research Studies in Music Education, 5(1), 1-10.


Southcott, J. E. (1996). Curriculum Stasis: Gratton in South Australia. In V. Weidenbach (Ed.), Proceedings of the XVIII Annual Conference, Australian Association for Research in Music Education (pp.51-59). Sydney, NSW: AARME.


Southcott, J. E. (1997). Alexander Clark. In W. Bebbington (Ed.), The Oxford Companion to Australian Music (pp. 127-128). Melbourne: Oxford University Press.


Southcott, J. E. (1997). Frank Gratton. In W. Bebbington (Ed.), The Oxford Companion to Australian Music (pp. 249-250). Melbourne: Oxford University Press.


Southcott, J. E. (1997). Heather Gell. In W. Bebbington (Ed.), The Oxford Companion to Australian Music (p. 236). Melbourne: Oxford University Press.


Southcott, J. E. (1997). John Bishop. In W. Bebbington (Ed.), The Oxford Companion to Australian Music (p. 59). Melbourne: Oxford University Press.


Southcott, J. E. (1997). June Epstein. In W. Bebbington (Ed.), The Oxford Companion to Australian Music (pp. 203-204). Melbourne: Oxford University Press.


Southcott, J. E. (1998). Evaluating Music Education: The role and processes of historical inquiry. In E. Gifford (Ed.), Directions for the 21st Century: Research in Music Assessment and Evaluation: Proceedings of the XIX Annual Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Music Education (pp. 33-42). Sydney: AARME.


Southcott, J. E. (2000). Songs for Young Australians. In Proceedings of the National Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Music Education, 2000 (pp. 164-171). AARME.


Southcott, J. E. (2000). Curriculum Stasis: Gratton in South Australia, Research Studies in Music Education, 14, 50- 60.


Southcott, J. E. (2002). A tale of two brothers: E. Harold and H. Walford Davies. In J. Rosevear & J. Callaghan (Eds), Research Matters: Linking Outcomes with Practice: Proceedings of the XXIV Annual Conference of the Association for Research in Music Education (pp. 179-186). AARME.


Southcott, J. E. (2002). ‘Now the Labourer's Task is O'er’: Alexander Clark and the foundation of school music in South Australia, Journal of the Historical Society of South Australia, 30, 24-38.


Southcott, J. E. (2002). Songs for young Australians. Iin J. E. Southcott & R, Smith (Eds), A Community of Researchers: Australian Association for Research in Music Education: Proceedings of the XXIInd Annual Conference (pp. 164-171). AARME.


Southcott, J. E. (2003). The origins of colonial class music education in South Australia: A Sunday school was established. In L.C.R. Yip, C.C. Leung & W.T. Lau (Eds), Proceedings of the 4th Asia-Pacific Symposium on Music Education Research, Vol. 1, (pp. 338 -342). Hong Kong: HKIE.


Southcott, J. E. (2003). 'A Knight of Song': F.L. Gratton. In N. Jeanneret (Ed.), Australian Association for Research in Music Education: Proceedings of the XXIII Annual Conference (pp. 151-158). Melbourne: AARME.


Southcott, J. E. (2004). Essential learning in music education: Teaching music in schools in South Australia during the 1950s. In M. Chaseling (Ed.), Proceedings of the XXVIth Annual AARME Conference, Melbourne, 2004 (pp. 292-300). Melbourne: AARME.


Southcott, J. E. (2005). The singing by-ways: origins of class music education in South Australia, Journal of Historical Research in Music Education, 25(2), 116 - 127.


Southcott, J. E. (2005). ‘Removing the ‘Australian twang and slang’: Vocal health, singing tone and enunciation in school music in South Australia in the 19th and early 20th centuries. In P. de Vries (Ed.), AARME Proceedings of the XXVIIth Annual Conference (pp. 134-141). Melbourne: AARME.


Southcott, J. E. (2005). Six ways at once: Effective curriculum change in primary music education. An historical model. In D. Forrest (Ed.), Australian Society for Music Education Inc. XV National Conference Proceedings (pp. 235-240). Parkville, Victoria: ASME.


Southcott, J. E. (2005). Drums, fifes and drill: patriotism and militaristic practices in 19th century Australian school music. In S. J. Morrison (Ed.), Proceedings of the 5th Asia Pacific Symposium on Music Education Research (pp. 1-10). Seattle: University of Washington School of Music.


Southcott, J. E. (2005). Nationalism and School Music in Australia. In S. J. Morrison (Ed.), Proceedings of the 5th Asia Pacific Symposium on Music Education Research. Seattle: University of Washington School of Music.


Southcott, J. E. (2006). Changing the voices of teachers and children: Singing and elocution in South Australia in the nineteenth and early-twentieth century, Journal of Historical Research in Music Education, XXVIII(1), 53-70.


Southcott, J. E. (2006). Review of 'More than a musician: a life of E. Harold Davies', by Doreen Bridges, Musicology Australia, 28, 172-176.


Southcott, J. E. (2006). Bright and breezy: Past and present practices in pre-school music education. In J. Southcott & P. de Vries (Eds.), Proceedings of the XXVIIIth Annual Conference Music Education: Standards and Practices, Australian Association for Research in Music Education, Melbourne (pp. 104-110). Melbourne: AARME.


Southcott, J. E. (2009). The Melbourne UNESCO seminar, 1956: A watershed in Australian music education. In M. Comte (Ed.), Musical Dimensions: A Festschrift for Doreen Bridges (pp. 80-98). Melbourne: Australian Scholarly Publishing Pty Ltd.


Southcott, J. E. (2012). Nationalism and school music in Australia. In D. Hebert & A. Kertz-Welzel (Eds.), Patriotism and Nationalism in Music Education (pp.43-57). Surrey, United Kingdom: Ashgate Publishing Limited.


Southcott, J. E. (2014). One hundred years of ‘Anglo-Saxondom’ in the south: The Children’s Demonstration Pageant of Empire, South Australia 1936, Australian Journal of Music Education: Special Edition ‘Landmarks’, 2013(2),


Southcott, J. E. (2014), One hundred years of 'Anglo-Saxondom' in the south: The Children's Demonstration Pageant of Empire, South Australia, 1936, Australian Journal of Music Education, 2014(2), 159-183.


Southcott, J. E. (2016). Early days of recorder reaching in South Australian schools, Australian Journal of Music Education, 50(1), 16-26


Southcott, J. E. (2017). Examining Australia: The activities of four examiners of the Associated Board for the Royal Schools of Music in 1923, Journal of Historical Research in Music Education, 39(1), 51-77.


Southcott, J.E. & Lee, A.H-C. (2003). Imperialism in school music: common experiences in two different cultures. International Journal of Music Education, 40, 28-39.


Southcott, J. E. & Cosaitis, W. (2012). ‘It all begins with the beat of a drum’: Early Australian encounters with Orff Schulwerk, Australian Journal of Music Education, 2012(2), 20-32.


Southcott, J. E. & Burke, H. (2012). An attunement for change: The introduction of creative music teaching in Australia, Canadian Music Educator, 54(2), 19-26.


Southcott, J. E. & Crawford, R. (2011). The Intersections of Curriculum Development: Music, ICT and Australian music education. Australasian Journal of Education Technology, 27(1), 122-136.


Southcott, J. E. & Joseph, D.Y. (2007). From Empire to filmi: A fusion of Western and Indian cultural practices in Australian music education, International Journal of Music Education, 25(3), 235-243.


Southcott, J. E. & Lee, A. H-C. (2013). Lanterns and drums: Changing representations of Chinese songs in Australian school music. Music Education Research, 15(3), 317-340.


Southcott, J. E. (2016), Early Days of Recorder Teaching in South Australian Schools: A Personal History. Australian Journal of Music Education, 50(1), 2016, 16-26.


Stevens, R. S. (1974). Samuel McBurney, 1847-1909, Educationist and Music Teacher. In D. Pike (Ed.), (Vol. 5, pp. 128-129). Melbourne: Melbourne University Press.


Stevens, R. S. (1976). George William Torrance, 1835-1907, Clergyman and Musician. In B. Nairn (Ed.), (Vol. 6, pp. 290-291). Melbourne: Melbourne University Press.


Stevens, R. S. (1976). Joseph Summers, 1839-1917, Musician. In B. Nairn (Ed.), (Vol. 6, pp. 220-221). Melbourne: Melbourne University Press.


Stevens, R. S. (1981). Historical Research in the Field of Music Education: Its Nature and Applications. In J. Bryce (Ed.), Proceedings of the Fourth National Conference of the Association of Music Education Lecturers (pp. 52-63). Melbourne: Association of Music Education Lecturers, Melbourne.


Stevens, R. S. (1981). Music: A Humanising and Civilising Influence in Education. In G. Featherstone (Ed.), The Colonial Child. Melbourne: Royal Historical Society of Victoria.


Stevens, R. S. (1986). Samuel McBurney - Australian Advocate of Tonic Sol-fa, Journal of Research in Music Education, 34(2), 77-87.


Stevens, R. S. (1990). Inspiration from the Past: A Case Study of our Nation's Heritage in Music Education. In B. Smith (Ed.), Proceedings of the VIIth AMSE National Conference, Australian Society for Music Education (pp.27-30). ASME.


Stevens, R. S. (1992). Great Australian educators: Samuel McBurney -The Stanley of Sol-fa, Unicorn: The Journal of the Australian College of Education, 18(3), 68-72.


Stevens, R. S. (1993). Great Australian educators: Hugo Alpen - New South Wales Superintendent of Music, 1884-1908, Unicorn: The Journal of the Australian College of Education, 19(3), 93-96.


Stevens, R. S. (1993). Music Education in Australia: Reflections on the Past and Present. In E. P. Errington (Ed.), Arts Education: Beliefs, Practices and Possibilities (pp. 57-68). Geelong, Victoria: Deakin University Press.


Stevens, R. S. (1997). George Leavis Allan. In W. Bebbington (Ed.), The Oxford Companion to Australian Music (p. 20). Melbourne: Oxford University Press.


Stevens, R. S. (1997). James Fisher. In W. Bebbington (Ed.), The Oxford Companion to Australian Music (p. 217). Melbourne: Oxford University Press.


Stevens, R. S. (1997). Joseph Summers. In W. Bebbington (Ed.), The Oxford Companion to Australian Music (p. 534). Melbourne: Oxford University Press.


Stevens, R. S. (1997). Music Education (Master article). In W. Bebbington (ed.), The Oxford Companion to Australian Music (p. 396-399). Melbourne: Oxford University Press.


Stevens, R. S. (1997). Samuel McBurney. In W. Bebbington (Ed.), The Oxford Companion to Australian Music (p. 352). Melbourne: Oxford University Press.


Stevens, R. S. (1999). A Nineteenth Century Australia-Japan Connection in Music Education: The work of Emily Patton in Yokohama. In Proceedings of the National Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Music Education, 1999 (pp. 299-305). AARME.


Stevens, R. S. (2000). Emily Patton: An Australian Pioneer of Tonic Sol-fa in Japan, Research Studies in Music Education, 14, 40-49.


Stevens, R. S. (2002). Change and Stasis in School Music Education in Victoria: The Past Informing the Future, Australian Journal of Music Education, 2002(1), 19-29.


Stevens, R. S. (2002). James Churchill Fisher: Pioneer of Tonic Sol-fa in Australia. In J. Southcott & R. Smith (Eds), A Community of Researchers: Proceedings of the XXIInd Annual Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Music Education (2000) (pp.172-182). Melbourne: AARME.


Stevens, R. S. (2002). Why Teach Music in Schools? Changing values since the 1850s. In Proceedings of the National Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Music Education, 2002 (pp. 193-205). AARME.


Stevens, R. S. (2002). Why Teach Music in Schools? Music Forum: Journal of the Music Council of Australia, 9(2), 19-24.


Stevens, R. S. (2005), Taking Stock of School Music Education in Victoria: The Lessons of History in the Present Context of the National Review. In A Celebration of Voices: Proceedings of the XV National Conference, Australian Society for Music Education (pp. 253-258). Melbourne: ASME.


Stevens, R. S. (2006). Forward Gaily Together—The School Music Compositions of Samuel McBurney. In J. Southcott & P. de Vries (Eds.). Proceedings of the XXVIIIth Annual Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Music Education (pp. 116-125). Melbourne: AARME.


Stevens, R. S. (2017), Pathfinder and Role Model: Ada Bloxham, Australian Vocalist and Tonic Sol-fa Teacher, OnlineFirst (Journal of Historical Research in Music Education), http:// http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1536600616669360


Stevens, R. S. & Southcott, J. E. (2010). Australia: Recurring problems and unresolved issues. In G. Cox & R. S. Stevens (Eds), Origins and Foundations of Music in Compulsory Schooling: Cross-cultural Studies of Music in Compulsory Education (pp. 171-187). London: The Continuum International Publishing Group Ltd.


Stevens, R. S. & Southcott, J. E. (2017). Australia: Recurring problems and unresolved issues [revised and updated]. In G. Cox & R. S. Stevens (Eds), Origins and Foundations of Music in Compulsory Schooling: International Perspectives (pp. 223-239). London: Bloomsbury Academic.


Tregear, P. J. (1997). The Conservatorium of Music, University of Melbourne: An Historical Essay to Mark Its Centenary 1895-1995. Melbourne: Centre for Studies in Australian Music, Faculty of Music, University of Melbourne, 1997.


Walters, F. (1999), A better, gentler school: Music at Xavier College. Melbourne: Eldon Hogan Trust, Melbourne.


Weiss, G. (1995). Fundamental or frill? Music education in Australian schools since the 1880s, Research Studies in Music Education, 5(1), 55-65.


Williamson, J. D. (1979). Aspects of Teacher Education in Music in Western Australia. In Proceedings of the National Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Music Education, 1979, (pp. 61-66). Melbourne: AARME.


The bibliography above has been compiled from citations listed in the following sources:


Australian Association for Research in Music Education (2008). Indexed Abstracts, 1978-2007 (2nd ed.). Melbourne: AARME.


Musicological Society of Australia (2016). Education and Pedagogy (Specialty). MSA Australia and New Zealand Postgraduate Music Research Thesis Register [website], http://www.musicresearchanz.com/?q=taxonomy/term/21


National Library of Australia (2017). Trove [website], http://trove.nla.gov.au/


Journal of Historical Research in Music Education (2017), ‘Browse: All Issues, July 1980-October 2017’ [website], http://journals.sagepub.com/loi/jhr


Stevens, R.S. (1981). Historical Research in the Field of Musical Education: Its nature and applications. Proceedings of the National Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Music Education, 1981 (pp. 52-63). Melbourne: AARME.


Stevens, R.S. (2013). BAMER – The Bibliography of Australian Music Education Research, 1934-2012/13 [website], http://music-ed.net/bamer/


Southcott, J. E. & Sell, D. (2014), Introduction to historical research in music education. In Hartwig, K. A. (Ed.), Research Methodologies in Music Education (pp. 9-34). Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.


RMIT Training (2015), Searching Databases [website], http://search.informit.org/

References

  1. R. Aldrich, Education for the Nation (London: Cassell, 1996), p. 3.
  2. A. P. Britton, ‘The How and Why of Teaching Singing schools in Eighteenth Century America’, Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, no. 99 (Winter 1989), pp. 23-41, quoted in G. Heller, ‘Historical Research in Music Education: Definitions and Defences’, Philosophy of Music Education Review, vol. 6, no. 2 (Fall 1998), p. 80.
  3. G. N. Heller & B. D. Wilson, ‘Historical Research in Music Education: A Prolegomenon’, Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, no. 69 (1982), pp. 1–20.
  4. R. Pascoe, S. Leong et al., National Review of School Music Education; Augmenting the Diminished (Canberra: Australian Government, 2005).
  5. See R. S. Stevens, ‘Change and Stasis in School Music Education in Victoria: The Past Informing the Future’, Australian Journal of Music Education, 2002(1), pp. 19-29.
  6. Robin Stevens is a Principal Fellow in the Melbourne Conservatorium of Music, The University of Melbourne.
  7. Some of these materials, particularly doctoral theses, may available for accessing as PDF files from university libraries.
  8. Note that, in the case of several of the conference papers listed in this bibliography, the editors and places of publication have not been included. Conferences papers as well as articles published in the Australian Journal of Music Education, Journal of Historical Research in Music Education, etc. should be available online via eJournal and database listings. For example, most Australian journal articles and conference papers are available via Informit – http://search.informit.org/


Author

Robin Stevens

Published Dec 6, 2017

Share your opinion